Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol is one of the most problematic substances of abuse in the United States and globally. In 2020, an estimated 27.6 million Americans age 18 and up had an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the previous year.1 Fortunately, with proper treatment, long-term recovery from alcoholism is possible.
What Is an Alcohol Use Disorder?
Alcohol use disorder is a chronic brain disease.2 This disorder is also commonly and more simply referred to as “alcoholism.”3,4
What Are the Signs of Alcoholism?
The fifth edition of the DSM includes “alcohol use disorder” as a disorder, and symptoms of alcohol use disorder include: 5
- Craving alcohol.
- Trying to control or reduce use of alcohol but not succeeding, or persistently wanting to control or decrease use of it.
- In situations where using alcohol is dangerous physically, using it repeatedly.
- Frequently using more alcohol or using alcohol for more time than intended.
- Not fulfilling important responsibilities at home, school, or work because of repeated use of alcohol.
- Spending a lot of time doing things needed for using, getting, or recovering from alcohol.
- Experiencing alcohol withdrawal.
- To evade or alleviate symptoms of withdrawal, using alcohol or a similar substance.
- Still using a consistent alcohol amount being significantly less effective.
- Significantly more alcohol being necessary to get the wanted effect or intoxicated.
- Due to use of alcohol, decreasing or stopping work-related, recreational, or social activities that are important.
- Even though knowing that alcohol probably worsened or brought on a mental or physical issue that is lasting or repeatedly occurs, still using alcohol.
- Even though alcohol worsened or brought on interpersonal or social issues that are lasting or repeatedly occur, still using alcohol.
Risk Factors for the Development of an Alcohol Use Disorder
A risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) may increase the likelihood of someone developing AUD. Risk factors for AUD include:5–15
- Amount of alcohol consumption: Drinking that is deemed “at-risk” generally is, for healthy women, drinking an amount greater than 7 alcoholic drinks a week and/or greater than 3 in a day. Drinking that is deemed “at-risk” generally is, for healthy men, drinking an amount greater than 14 alcoholic drinks a week and/or greater than 4 in a day.
- Social network: An individual may be more likely to have a substance use disorder as an adolescent if that individual spends time with peers who act in general in deviant ways. An individual may have a higher risk of substance use disorder if the individual’s social support is poor. It contributes to the AUD risk of an individual if the individual associates with people that abuse alcohol.
- Genetics: For some genes, certain variations may impact an individual’s alcohol use disorder risk.
- Family history: Substance use in one’s family may increase a person’s risk of substance use disorder. The near relations of persons with AUD have an increased rate of AUD. There is a higher chance of alcohol problems occurring in the children of individuals with AUD. Although genetics probably contribute to this higher chance, other things family members share (such as way of living and/or environment) might play a part as well.
- Psychology: Risk of alcohol use disorder is affected by stress. Having self-esteem that is poor and being impulsive can make alcohol use disorder more likely. Mental illness (such as depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder) may make alcohol use disorder more likely.
- Trauma: The likelihood of substance use disorders is higher in people who have gone through trauma.
- The age drinking starts: Drinking when younger than 21 years old may raise an individual’s risk of later alcohol use disorder.
- Parenting: Low supervision by parents may increase an adolescent’s likelihood of AUD.
Short-Term Dangers of Alcohol Abuse
In the short-term and in the long-term, consuming too much alcohol could be harmful or even deadly.16,17
In the short-term, using too much alcohol can raise a person’s risk of problems including alcohol poisoning, violence, injury, and risky sexual activity.16,17 Death might occur, for example, from alcohol poisoning or a crash involving a driver impaired by alcohol.5–18
The CDC conveys that individuals that intend to drive or are driving should consume no alcohol at all.16 Alcohol use starts impairing at amounts much lower than the legal limit.19 For instance, a person could have reduced visual functions and could be less capable of doing two things at once at a blood alcohol concentration of 0.02 g/dL.20
Drinking Alcohol While Pregnant
Additionally, when pregnant or attempting to conceive, using any alcohol could be dangerous—no amount is known to be safe.21 Stillbirth, miscarriage, and a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder can result due to a woman who is pregnant using alcohol.16,21 Even prior to a woman being aware of her pregnancy, alcohol is able to cause her baby problems.21 The CDC conveys that pregnant women and women who might be pregnant should consume no alcohol at all.16
Furthermore, for several other categories of individuals, the CDC indicates they should consume no alcohol at all.16
Death or lasting damage to the brain may result from alcohol poisoning, which is also called alcohol overdose.17
Alcohol poisoning symptoms and signs may include:17
- Throwing up.
- Being confused.
- 10 seconds between breaths or longer.
- Less than 8 breaths in a minute.
- Skin that is bluish and/or pale.
- Not able to be woken up.
- Low temperature.
If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on alcohol, call 911 right away. Alcohol present in a person’s intestine and stomach keeps going into the person’s blood and moving through the person’s body even after the individual ceases drinking.17
Possible Long-term Effects of Alcohol Abuse
Using alcohol heavily for a while might bring about issues including:11,16
Dependence may develop if a person regularly uses too much alcohol.22 Withdrawal can occur if a person who is dependent on alcohol suddenly stops or significantly decreases consumption of alcohol.5,22
Possible symptoms and signs of alcohol withdrawal include:5,23
- Trouble sleeping.
- Worsened judgment.
- Being agitated and/or irritable.
- Being disoriented.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Being more sensitive to light, to tactile sensations, and to noises
- Worsened memory.
- Alterations in consciousness.
- Nightmares and/or intense dreams.
- Raised blood pressure.
- Faster heart rate.
- Raised temperature.
- Nausea and/or vomiting.
- Reduced appetite.
- Being restless.
- Psychomotor agitation.
Alcohol withdrawal can be deadly. If you or someone else may be experiencing alcohol withdrawal, get to an emergency department or talk to a medical provider right away. If fever, hallucinations, seizures, irregular heartbeat, or severe confusion arise, call 911 or get to an emergency department right away.24
How to Treat Alcoholism
See what our alumni, Norma, has to say about getting help for alcoholism.
Alcoholism is a complex but treatable disease.25
Because of the risks associated with acute withdrawal from alcohol, doctors typically recommend some form of medical detox to ensure this process is as safe and comfortable as possible. For many, this is the first step in the recovery journey.
An alcohol detoxification and alcohol rehab in Orange County is usually followed by more comprehensive rehab, which may include various types of psychoeducation and other evidence-based therapies that help people change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with alcohol abuse.26
At Laguna Treatment Hospital in Orange County, California, we offer medical detox programs and inpatient or residential treatment for addiction. Our programs are designed to give people the support and tools they need to get and stay sober.