12-Step Addiction Recovery Programs

Addiction can be incredibly difficult to manage, but long-term sobriety is possible with the right support and help from addiction recovery programs.

Once an individual decides to get sober, there are many treatment options out there, most of which incorporate the 12-step model in some way. This page will outline the 12 steps, and provide and overview on how the program works.

What is a 12-Step program?

peer support through a 12-step addiction recovery program12-step programs are designed to help people suffering from addiction primarily by creating a supportive community invested in helping each other, surrendering control to a higher power, and righting the wrongs perpetrated by people when substances were controlling them.

The formula for the 12-step program was developed to help people suffering from alcohol addiction but has since been expanded to help people with other addictions as well. Examples of 12-step programs include:

Most addiction rehab and detox centers incorporate the 12-step model in their offerings. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reports that nearly 74% of addiction treatment facilities utilize the 12-Step model. In addition, many individuals who exit formal treatment make regular attendance at 12-Step meetings part of their aftercare plan.

What are the 12 Steps of Addiction recovery?

The 12 Steps outlined on Alcoholics Anonymous’ website are as follows:

  1. Admitting that alcoholism is beyond one’s control
  2. Believing that God, or any higher power, can help
  3. Making a decision to turn one’s life over to God (in any form)
  4. Taking a personal inventory
  5. Admitting that wrongs have been committed
  6. Being ready to have God remove character defects
  7. Asking God to remove one’s shortcomings
  8. Making a list of people who were harmed by the addiction and being ready to make amends with them
  9. Making amends with these people, when it is in their best interest
  10. Continuing to take personal inventory and admitting any wrongdoings that are found
  11. Praying and meditating so God’s will is continually apparent
  12. Helping other alcoholics by spreading the word of recovery

These 12 Steps are also built to be circular, meaning that an individual can start over from any point should they relapse.

Most treatment facilities have integrated a modified or shortened version of the 12 Steps into their current services; for example, the journal Science and Practice Perspectives analyzed the Maryhaven facility in Ohio and found that individuals who come in for treatment typically accomplish three or more steps during their time in treatment.

Part of the reason that the 12-Step program has remained popular over time is the way it integrates two important recovery elements into one program: social encouragement and therapy. In meetings, individuals share their experiences and struggles in tackling their addiction in the same way they might in a group therapy session. This aspect, along with the sponsor/sponsee relationship, can help an individual find support and encouragement as they get sober. For many, this can be the difference between a successful recovery and relapse.

What Are the Goals of 12-Step programs?

Everyone’s path in recovery is different and people may have different goals as they progress in their journey. In general, the desired outcomes of 12 step programs include:

  • The individual remaining in recovery.
  • The individual leading a fulfilling life and bettering themselves in all aspects.
  • Helping other people achieve sobriety and fulfillment as well.

What Are the 12 Traditions in a 12-Step Program?

The 12 traditions of AA are separate from the more talked-about 12 Steps. These traditions are the principles that the organization follows:

  1. The common welfare of AA members should come first because a member’s recovery depends on AA unity.
  2. For the purposes of AA, there is only one authority, and that is a loving God as He may express Himself in the group conscious. AA leaders are servants, not governors.
  3. The only requirement for membership in AA is a sincere desire to stop drinking.
  4. Every group should be autonomous except where it concerns other groups or the AA organization as a whole.
  5. Each group’s main purpose is to relay the message to alcoholics who are still suffering.
  6. AA groups should never endorse, finance, or lend the AA name to a related facility or outside enterprise, to avoid diverting AA from its primary purpose.
  7. No AA group should accept outside contributions.
  8. AA should always be nonprofessional; however, service centers may employ special workers.
  9. AA should never be organized but can create service boards or committees in service of members.
  10. AA is to remain neutral on outside issues so as not to be mired in public controversy.
  11. AA’s public relations policy is based on attraction, not promotion. AA members should maintain personal anonymity at the level of press, radio, and films.
  12. Anonymity is the spiritual foundation of AA.

What Are Sponsors & How Do They Help in 12-Step Recovery?

In addition to regular meetings with their peers, people in 12-Step addiction recovery programs often have sponsors—a fellow participant in the program who acts as a mentor and support system. Sponsors have been in recovery for a more substantial amount of time and are stable in their recovery efforts.

Overcoming addiction is a difficult and sometimes lonely process, and a sponsor can help a person process all that they’re going through.

This element of social interaction and personal support can be very important for a newly sober individual. Overcoming addiction is a difficult and sometimes lonely process, and a sponsor can help a person process all that they’re going through. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) claims that working with a sponsor can help an individual overcome psychological hurdles to recovery. A sponsor will check in to ensure their sponsee attends meetings and sticks to the program. They’ll be available by phone or in person to assist their sponsee if they are feeling the urge to relapse. By having someone to talk to, those new to the 12-Step program can often sidestep relapse, particularly in the early days of recovery when they are especially vulnerable.

Is the 12-Step Model Effective Addiction Recovery?

patients in a 12 step group meetingThe 12 steps have helped many people achieve sobriety and long-term recovery. There have been numerous studies that attest to the effectiveness of 12-step programs.

For example, a 2020 review published in Alcohol and Alcoholism found that Alcoholics Anonymous was as or more effective at treating alcohol addiction than other interventions in practically every metric, while drastically reducing costs to patients.

Many rehab centers like Laguna Treatment Hospital incorporate 12-step facilitation therapy into treatment and help patients establish a connection to 12-step programs in their community once their time in inpatient treatment ends.

Non 12 Step Recovery Centers

One of the biggest objections to the 12-Step alcohol recovery program is its religious undertones. It is possible that nonreligious people struggle to take their sobriety seriously when they’re working through a program with a clear religious leaning. Individuals who do not believe in God–or God “as they understand Him,” as the 12 Steps say – may not feel comfortable proclaiming belief in a higher power to progress on their recovery journey.

The aversion to a religious message has led to the creation of several secular recovery options.

Popular alcohol recovery programs include:

Secular Organizations for Sobriety, or SOS, is a group born from a desire for an alternative to the 12-step program. Founded by former AA member James Christopher in 1986, this program follows a similar methodology to the 12 Steps but without the emphasis on God. SOS participants are encouraged to acknowledge their addiction, abstain from their substance of choice, and share their feelings through regular meetings. However, this group does not require participants to “turn [their] will and [their] lives” over to a higher power.

SMART Recovery was developed in the 1990s as a part of the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Self-Help Network (ADASHN). Unlike 12-Step advocates who view addiction as a disease a person can fall victim to, SMART Recovery participants view addiction as a habit that must be broken. This program is more scientifically focused than the 12-Step movement, encouraging individuals to overcome their addictions through evidence-based, tested recovery methods. Their methods help individuals build their motivation, cope with urges for their substance of choice, develop problem-solving skills, and find balance in their new, sober lifestyle.

Moderation Management (MM) was founded in 1994 with a slightly different mission than most addiction recovery organizations. This program was not for individuals who were alcoholics, but for nondependent “problem drinkers.” These individuals attend meetings to learn how to limit their drinking while not abstaining from alcohol entirely. MM uses Cognitive Behavioral Therapy principles to help individuals develop self-control around addictive substances. However, they do recognize that this is not a program for everyone; even MM founder Audrey Kishline admitted in 2000 that her drinking had progressed beyond MM’s reach and that she would begin attending AA and SMART Recovery meetings.

So, which program is best? The answer rests solely with the individual seeking recovery. What works well for some may not be the best for others. While each program has its benefits and problems, it is important to remember that overcoming addiction is a deeply personal journey; therefore, only the person on the journey will know what is best for them.

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